Which Element is Used for Making Solar Cells

Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electrical energy through a process called the photovoltaic effect. Which element used in solar cells is silicon. However, several other elements and materials are used in different types of solar cells.

In this response, I will provide an overview of which element is used for making solar cells, discussing their properties and applications. Discover the vital element used in the production of solar cells at our leading solar company in Rajkot.

Which element is used for making solar cells

  • Silicon:

Silicon (Si) is the most widely used element in solar cell production due to its abundance and excellent semiconductor properties. Silicon solar cells are typically made from high-purity crystalline silicon. 

The silicon atoms are arranged in a regular lattice structure, forming a semiconductor material with a bandgap to absorb photons from sunlight. Silicon solar cells can be further divided into monocrystalline and polycrystalline types. 

  • Monocrystalline silicon:

cells are made from a single crystal structure, resulting in high efficiency and uniform appearance. They have a higher cost of production but offer excellent performance in terms of efficiency and durability. Monocrystalline silicon cells are easily recognizable by their uniform black colour and rounded edges. 

  • Polycrystalline silicon:

cells are made from multiple silicon crystals, resulting in a lower-cost manufacturing process. Polycrystalline cells have a slightly lower efficiency than monocrystalline cells but are still widely used due to their cost-effectiveness.

  • Cadmium Telluride (CdTe):

 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is a compound semiconductor material commonly used in thin-film solar cells. CdTe solar cells are made by depositing a thin layer of CdTe onto a substrate, typically glass. CdTe has a high absorption coefficient, efficiently converting sunlight into electricity.

One of the significant advantages of CdTe solar cells is their low manufacturing cost. They require less material and less energy-intensive manufacturing processes than silicon-based solar cells. CdTe solar cells also exhibit good performance in hot climates and low-light conditions. 

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Which Element is Used for Making Solar Cells

  • Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS):

Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is another compound semiconductor material used in thin-film solar cells. CIGS cells are formed by depositing a thin layer of CIGS onto a substrate. This material has a high absorption coefficient, enabling efficient sunlight absorption. 

CIGS solar cells offer several advantages, including a high-efficiency potential, good performance under low-light conditions, and flexibility. They can be manufactured using techniques like sputtering, evaporation, or printing.

  • Gallium Arsenide (GaAs):

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is an III-V compound semiconductor material in high-performance solar cells. GaAs solar cells have excellent electronic properties and a higher efficiency potential than silicon. 

They are commonly used in specialized applications such as space-based solar panels and concentrated photovoltaic systems. GaAs solar cells are more expensive to manufacture due to the complexity of the material and production processes involved.

  • Perovskite:

 Perovskite solar cells are an exciting emerging technology in the field of photovoltaics. Perovskite is a class of materials with a specific crystal structure, typically composed of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds.

Lead halide perovskites, such as methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), have shown high power conversion efficiencies in solar cells. Perovskite solar cells offer the potential for low-cost manufacturing, lightweight and flexible design.

They can be processed using solution-based techniques like spin-coating or inkjet printing.

  • Organic Photovoltaics (OPV):

Organic photovoltaics utilize organic materials, such as polymers or small molecules, to convert sunlight into electricity. These materials can be processed using low-cost and scalable techniques like printing or coating, enabling the potential for flexible and lightweight solar cells. OPV cells have the advantage of tunable properties and the ability to capture a broader range of sunlight wavelengths. However, their power conversion efficiencies are lower than inorganic solar cells.

  • Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC):

Dye-sensitized solar cells are a type of thin-film solar cell that employs a photosensitive dye to absorb light. The dye absorbs photons and transfers the energy to an electron acceptor, generating an electric current.

DSSCs offer advantages such as cost-effectiveness, low-temperature processing, and working efficiently under low-light conditions and indirect sunlight. However, their stability and long-term durability are still areas of activity.


Discover the key element used in the production of solar cells, offered by our leading solar company in Rajkot. While silicon remains the dominant material for solar cell production, various other elements and materials are used to develop different types of solar cells.

We have a list of which elements are used for making solar cells and which elements are used in solar cells, which includes Cadmium Telluride, Copper Indium Gallium Selenide, Gallium Arsenide, Perovskite, Organic Photovoltaics, and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Each material has advantages and limitations, and ongoing research and development aim to improve efficiency.

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