Types of Solar Panels and How Solar Panels Work?

In a world increasingly aware of the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, solar power has emerged as a shining beacon of sustainability. Harnessing the sun's abundant energy, solar panels have become a key player in the quest for clean and renewable energy. 

In this comprehensive guide Solar epc companies in India, we will delve into the types of solar panels available and unravel the fascinating science behind their functionality.

Types of Solar Panels: 

  • Monocrystalline Solar Panels:

Monocrystalline solar panels are known for their efficiency and sleek design. These panels are made from a single crystal structure, typically silicon, which allows them to convert sunlight into electricity with high efficiency. 

Monocrystalline panels are ideal for spaces with limited roof space, as they can generate more power in smaller areas compared to other types.

  • Polycrystalline Solar Panels:

Polycrystalline solar panels are made from multiple silicon crystals, offering a more cost-effective alternative to monocrystalline panels. While they may have a slightly lower efficiency, polycrystalline panels are still a viable option for residential and commercial installations. 

They are recognizable by their blue speckled appearance and are a popular choice for those looking for a balance between efficiency and affordability. 

  • Thin-Film Solar Panels: 

Thin-film Solar epc companies in India are made by depositing a thin layer of photovoltaic material onto a substrate, such as glass or metal. This type of panel is more flexible and lightweight, making it suitable for unconventional installation sites.

Although thin-film panels typically have lower efficiency compared to crystalline counterparts, they excel in low-light conditions and can be an excellent choice for specific applications. 

  • Bifacial Solar Panels:

Bifacial solar panels have the unique ability to capture sunlight from both the front and rear sides of the panel, making them more efficient than traditional one-sided panels. By reflecting and utilizing sunlight bouncing off surrounding surfaces, bifacial panels maximize energy production.  

These panels are gaining popularity for ground-mounted installations where sunlight can be reflected from the ground.

How Solar Panels Work:

Understanding the science behind solar panels is key to appreciating their incredible potential for sustainable energy generation. The process begins with the most abundant and powerful energy source in our solar system, the sun.

  • Photovoltaic Effect: 

At the heart of every solar panel is the photovoltaic (PV) effect. This phenomenon occurs when sunlight, composed of photons, strikes the surface of the solar cells within the panel. 

The energy from these photons is absorbed by semiconductor materials, typically silicon, causing electrons to be knocked loose from their atoms.

Types of Solar Panels and How Solar Panels Work?

  • Electricity Generation:

Once the electrons are set in motion, an electric field created within the solar cell guides them in a specific direction, creating a flow of electricity. This flow of electrons is captured as direct current (DC) electricity. 

However, most of our electrical appliances and grids operate on alternating current (AC). To convert DC to AC, an inverter is used, an essential component of any solar power system.


  • Inverter Conversion:


The inverter's role is to convert the DC electricity produced by the solar panels into AC electricity, aligning with the standard used in homes and businesses. This AC electricity can then be used to power appliances, lighting, and other electrical devices, or it can be fed into the grid for credit or compensation through net metering programs.


  • Grid Connection and Storage:


In grid-tied systems, excess electricity generated by the solar panels can be fed back into the grid. This not only ensures a continuous power supply but also allows users to earn credits or compensation for the surplus energy produced. 

Additionally, advancements in energy storage solutions, such as batteries, enable homeowners and businesses to store excess energy for use during periods of low sunlight, offering increased energy independence.

Solar EPC Companies in India:

As the demand for solar power continues to rise, Solar Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) companies play a pivotal role in bringing solar projects to fruition. These companies provide end-to-end solutions, from the design and engineering of solar installations to their procurement and construction. 

In India, the solar EPC sector is witnessing significant growth, driven by government initiatives, favourable policies, and an increasing awareness of the benefits of solar energy.

Tata Power Solar Systems Limited:

A prominent player in the Indian solar industry, Tata Power Solar Systems Limited offers comprehensive solar solutions, including EPC services. With a strong commitment to sustainability, Tata Power Solar has been a key contributor to the adoption of solar energy across various sectors.

Sterling and Wilson Solar Limited:

Sterling and Wilson Solar Limited is a global EPC solutions provider with a strong presence in India. The company specializes in utility-scale solar projects and has successfully executed numerous large-scale solar installations, contributing significantly to India's solar capacity.

Adani Green Energy Limited:

Adani Green Energy Limited is part of the Adani Group and is a major player in the renewable energy sector. The company has a diverse portfolio, including solar power projects, and provides EPC services for both utility-scale and distributed solar installations.

Vikram Solar Limited:

Vikram Solar Limited is a leading solar EPC player known for its expertise in solar module manufacturing and EPC services. The company has been involved in the development of numerous solar projects across India, contributing to the country's transition to clean energy.


Solar panels are not just a technological marvel; they represent a transformative force in the global shift towards sustainable and clean energy. With advancements in technology and the increasing efficiency of solar panels, the future looks bright for solar power.

As solar EPC companies in India continue to play a crucial role in the country's solar revolution, the integration of solar energy into our daily lives is becoming a reality, one sunbeam at a time. 

Also Read: Process for Investing in Industrial Solar Panel